Monday, January 9, 2017

Unit 5, Chapter 14 The Physical Geography of Russia

Chapter 14 The Physical Geography of Russia
Study Guide for Apollo
Chapter 14, Section 1

Terms to Know
chernozem - A rich, black soil (page 346)
hydroelectric power - Electric power generated by falling water (page 348)
permafrost - A layer of soil beneath the surface of the ground that stays frozen year-round (page 349)
Introduction (page 345) 
The Soviet Union broke up into 15 republics in 1991. Russia is the largest of these republics.
A Vast and Varied Land (page 345) 
Russia is the world’s largest country in land area. Much of its land is made up of mountains and plateaus.
A.  The Ural Mountains divide European Russia from Asian Russia.  The Urals are an old, worn-down range.
B.  The Caucasus Mountains are located in southwestern Russia. The highest point in Russia is Mount Elbrus, an extinct volcano in the Caucasus range.
C.  The Central Siberian Plateau covers a large area of the country. Swiftly flowing rivers have carved out canyons. Mountains on the southeastern edge of the plateau form the boundary between Russia and China.
D.  In far Northeastern Russia, the Kamchatka Peninsula contains 23 active volcanoes.

Vast plains span nearly half of Russia:
A.  Most of European Russia is part of the North European Plain. Most large Russian cities are located in this region. The northern part of the plain has many lakes and swamps. The southern part has navigable waterways and a rich, black soil, known as chernozem, that supports farming.
B.  The West Siberian Plain lies east of the Ural Mountains. It is one of the worlds’ largest areas of flatland.

Many important bodies of water are found in Russia:
A.  Russia has the longest continuous coastline in the world. The Russian coast touches both the Arctic and Pacific Oceans. The Arctic coast is frozen most of the year.
B.  The Black Sea, in southwestern Russia, provides a warm-water outlet to the Mediterranean Sea.
C.  The Caspian Sea is actually a saltwater lake. It is the world’s largest inland body of water.
D.  Lake Baikal, located in southern Siberia is the world’s deepest freshwater lake.

Rivers (page 348)
Russia’s longest rivers are located east of the Ural Mountains in Siberia.
Since most of Russia’s people live in western Russia, they often experience water shortages.
A.  The Volga River is important for European Russia. The river, its tributaries, and canals link the capital city of Moscow to the Baltic Sea, the Caspian Sea, and the Sea of Azov. The river also provides Russia with hydroelectric power, which is generated by falling water. The Volga also provides the country with water for drinking and irrigation.
B.  Most of the rivers in Siberia, such as the Ob, Irtysh, Yenisey, and Lena, flow north to the Arctic Ocean. These rivers freeze in the winter. In the spring, the southern parts of the rivers thaw before the northern parts, creating floods and large swamps.
Natural Resources (page 349) 
Russia has abundant natural resources. Many of the resources, however, lie
in places that are difficult to reach. Russia has the greatest reserves of mineral resources in the world. It has large oil reserves and 50 percent of the world’s coal reserves. Russia also produces copper, silver, gold, lead, and salt. Russia is a leading producer of hydroelectric power.
Because of Russia’s cold climate, only about 10 percent of the land is usable for agriculture. Because of permafrost, a layer of frozen soil that lies beneath the surface of the ground, little farming occurs in northern Russia. Millions of acres of fertile farmland stretch from Ukraine to southwestern Siberia. This area produces crops such as wheat, rye, oats, and barley.
About one-fifth of the world’s forested lands are located in Russia, most in eastern Siberia. These forests supply much of the world’s timber. Commercial logging, however, is quickly depleting Russian forests.
Fishing is an important industry in Russia. Russia produces salmon from the Pacific Ocean and herring, cod, and halibut from the Arctic Ocean.

Chapter 14, Section 2
Terms to Know
tundra  - A vast, treeless plain (page 352)
 taiga  - A forest belt that covers two-fifths of European Russia and much of Siberia (page 353)
steppe - A temperate grassland area with dry summers and long, dry winters (page 355)
Russia’s Kamchatka Peninsula experiences extremes in weather. Much of Russia has extreme cold and long winters.
Russia’s Climates and Vegetation (page 351) Most of Russia has a harsh climate with long, cold winters and short, cool summers. Eastern Siberia experiences the coldest winter temperatures. Most of Russia lies far away from the ocean and the moderating influences it can have on climate.
High Latitude Climates (page 352) 
Extremely cold winters and short summers characterize Russia’s high- latitude climates. Temperatures between winter and summer vary greatly. A vast, treeless plain called tundra covers much of Russia’s northern landscape. Almost the entire tundra climate region is located north of the Arctic Circle. The tundra covers about 10 percent of Russia. Because of a short growing season, only mosses, lichen, and dwarf shrubs grow there.
The subarctic climate region lies south of the tundra. Some of the world’s coldest temperatures occur in this climate region. The subarctic climate supports the taiga. This is a forest belt that covers two-fifths of European Russia and much of Siberia. The taiga is the world’s largest coniferous forest.

Russians have to adjust all aspects of their lives to live in the extremely cold climate. They use a great deal of energy to heat their dwellings. They also wear several layers of clothing made from wool or fur to protect themselves outdoors. Manufacturers use special kinds of materials to construct buildings and automobiles.

Mid-Latitude Climates (page 354) 
Most Russians live in Russia’s mid-latitude climates. These climates have milder winters and warmer summers than the high-latitude climates. A humid continental climate is found in most of Russia’s North European Plain. 

Mixed coniferous-deciduous forests are found in this climate. Soils are generally more fertile than in the taiga. Farther south in the mid-latitude climate region, The mixed forests merge into temperate grasslands. The fertile chernozem soil makes these grasslands ideal for growing crops such as wheat and barley.
A steppe climate region is located in a small area between the Black and Caspian Seas and a thin band along Russia’s border with Kazakhstan. The steppe climate region has dry summers and long, cold, dry winters. The steppe contains rich chernozem soil. Grasses, sunflowers, mint, and beans flourish in the steppe.

Chapter 13 Europe Today

Chapter 13 Europe Today

Study Guide for Apollo Team

Chapter 13, Section 1
Terms to Know
European Union (EU) -  A trading community that unites much of western Europe (page 313)
Maastricht Treaty - The treaty that set up the European Union (page 314)
heavy industry - The manufacture of machinery and industrial equipment (page 317)
light industry - The manufacturing of products, such as textiles or processed food, that do not require industrial raw materials (page 317) 
mixed farming - Raising several kinds of crops and livestock on the same farm (page 317) 
farm cooperatives - Organizations in which farmers share expenses and equipment in growing and selling farm products (page 317)
collective farms - Government-owned farms in which farmers received wages plus a share of products and profits (page 317) 
state farms - Government-owned farms in which farmers were paid wages (page 317) genetically modified food Food prepared from crops that have had their genes altered (page 317)
organic farming -  Farming that uses natural substances instead of fertilizers and chemicals to increase crop yields (page 318)
Introduction (page 313) 
Europeans continue to keep their national identities. However, they are
also beginning to identify with the European region as a whole. Eastern European countries today are building democracies. They are also building closer ties to western Europe.
1.         What two changes are occurring in eastern European countries today?
Changing Economies (page 313) Europe today is one of the world’s largest manufacturing and trading regions. The European Union (EU) unites much of western Europe into one trading community. Many countries of eastern Europe are also build- ing market economies.
The steps toward European unity have been developing since the end of World War II. In 1992 some European governments met in Maastricht, the Netherlands, and signed the Maastricht Treaty. It set up the European Union. The goal of the EU was to make European economies competitive with the rest of the world by not restricting the movement of goods, services, and people across its members’ borders. It also wanted to establish a single European currency. The EU has worked to boost trade and to develop more efficient and productive economies.
The EU plans to extend membership to several eastern European countries. Since 1989, these countries have been moving from command economies to market economies. The changes have been difficult because workers are losing some of the social safety net provided by the communist system.
2.         How does the EU plan to make European economies competitive?
Industry (page 316) The Industrial Revolution started in Europe. In the 1800s, Europe’s large deposits of coal and iron led to the growth of heavy industry the
manufacture of machinery and industrial equipment. The largest industrial centers in Europe today are located in Germany, France, Italy, Poland, and the Czech Republic. Countries that lack industrial raw materials specialize in light industry, such as making textiles.
About 60 percent of the workforce in western Europe is employed by service industries, including banking and tourism. High-technology industries are a growing part of western Europe’s economy.
3.         What kinds of industries employ about 60 percent of workers in western Europeans?
Agriculture (page 317) More Europeans make a living from farming than from any other single economic activity. Western European farmers use advanced farming methods and equipment to make the best use of their limited agricultural area.
Mixed farming—raising several kinds of crops and livestock on the same farm—is common. In some countries, farmers are part of farm cooperatives. These are organizations in which farmers share equipment and expenses in growing and selling farm products. Being members of cooperatives helps farmers reduce costs and increase profits.
Farming in eastern Europe has changed since the end of communist rule. Under communism, farmers worked on government-owned collective farms, where they received wages plus a share of products and profits. Other farmers worked on state farms, where they did not share in the profits but instead were paid wages. With the growth of democracy in eastern Europe, farms are becoming privately owned.
Throughout Europe new farming methods have led to opposition. Many people have protested the sale of genetically modified foods. These are foods prepared from crops that have had their genes altered so they can grow bigger or be more resistant to pests. Those who oppose this method believe that it has not been tested enough to be sure that genetically modified foods are safe to eat. Some farmers, concerned about chemical use, rely on organic farming. They use natural substances instead of fertilizers and chemicals to increase crop yields.
Transportation and Communications (page 318) Railroads throughout Europe connect the region’s major cities and bring
natural resources to Europe’s industrial centers. High-speed rail lines operate in some western European countries. These railways cause less damage to the environment and are more economical than other forms of transportation. A well-developed highway system also links major European cities. Europe handles more than half of the world’s international shipping at its ports.
Communication satellites broadcast television programs throughout western Europe. The quality of telephone service varies throughout Europe. A large percentage of western Europeans use cellular phones, electronic mail, and the Internet to communicate. Eastern European governments have stopped censoring printed materials, which continue to shape public opinion throughout Europe.
Chapter 13, Section 2
Terms to Know
dry farming - A way of farming that produces crops in dry areas without any irrigation (page 321) 
acid rain --Precipitation of airborne acidic chemicals mixed with water (page 321)
meltwater -The result of melting snow and ice (page 321)
acid deposition - Wet or dry acid pollution that falls to the ground (page 321)
environmentalist - Person concerned with the quality of the environment (page 322)
greenhouse effect - The condition caused by carbon dioxide and other gases trapping the sun’s heat near the earth’s surface (page 322) 
global warming -  Long-term rise in the earth’s average temperature (page 322)
biologist -  Scientist who studies plant and animal life (page 324)

Introduction (page 320) 
Damage to the environment crosses national boundaries. Rapid industrialization in eastern Europe polluted air and waterways, destroyed forests, and damaged buildings. Today Europeans are working to reverse the effects of pollution.
1.         What has caused the pollution of eastern Europe’s environment?
Humans and the Environment (page 320) Europe’s physical environment has posed many challenges to Europe’s people. Earthquakes are a frequent occurrence in parts of southern Europe. Low rainfall has caused droughts. The dry climate has made dry farming necessary. Dry farming is a way of farming that does not use irrigation, but instead conserves the moisture in the soil.
In northwestern Europe, heavy storms have led to flooding. Violent winds and rain have caused loss of life and damage to property. Countries on the North Sea have built dams and dikes to control the flooding.
2.         What challenges has Europe’s physical environment presented to Europeans?
Pollution (page 321) The high concentration of industry and population in Europe has severely damaged the land, air, and water in certain areas. In one area of Poland, eastern Germany, and the Czech Republic known as the “black triangle,” soot covers the ground and the air smells of sulfur from smokestacks. Before 1989 eastern European countries had few laws to control pollution. Industrial growth was considered more important than environmental safe- ty. Eastern European countries today are making efforts to control pollution. The European Union requires pollution control from all its members.
In the 1960s industries built high smokestacks to carry pollution away from industrial sites. This pollution combined with moisture in the air to form acid rain, which fell on other countries. Acid rain has destroyed 35 percent of Hungary’s forests, 82 percent of Poland’s, and 73 percent of forests in the Czech Republic and Slovakia. It also damages lakes and rivers. In winter, snow carries industrial air pollution to the ground. In spring, meltwater, the result of melting snow and ice, carries acid-forming chemicals into lakes and rivers. Eventually the acids cause the death of fish. In addition, acid deposition—wet or dry acid pollution that falls to the ground—has damaged many of Europe’s historic buildings.
In eastern Europe, air pollution has resulted in a lower life expectancy for humans. It has also poisoned crops. 
Environmentalists, or people concerned with the quality of the environment, are studying the ways that air pollution has affected the earth’s atmosphere. Carbon dioxide and other gases normally trap the sun’s heat near the earth’s surface. This condition creates a greenhouse effect which helps plants grow. However, the burning of fossil fuels such as coal and oil has increased the amounts of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Some scientists believe this increase is causing global warming—a rise in the earth’s average temperature. They believe that global warming could melt polar ice caps and mountain glaciers, causing coastal areas to be flooded. 
Dealing with global warming requires international cooperation, but the international community has done little to address the problem.  Water pollution is particularly serious in the Mediterranean region. Countries along the coast have dumped their waste into the sea. This has contaminated marine life and created health hazards for people. Agricultural runoff and raw sewage have also polluted Europe’s lakes and rivers.
3.         What problems has Europe experienced as a result of acid rain?
Reducing Pollution (page 323) Although much of Europe has been changed by human activity,
Europeans want to preserve the wilderness areas that are left. They are working to solve their environmental problems. For example, the European Union can take legal action against member countries who do not uphold environmental protection laws. European countries have protected buildings and statues with acid-resistant coating. They have added lime to some lakes to reduce acid levels. Scientists who study plant and animal life, or biologists, are researching the effects of acid levels on fish.
Pollution problems that cross national borders require international cooperation. The European Union (EU) has approved rules to protect endangered species and prevent the dumping of wastes from ships and airplanes. The EU also requires large companies to recycle their packaging waste.
Eastern European countries requesting admission to the European Union are required to meet the EU’s environmental standards before they can be admitted. Member countries in western Europe have converted many power plants from coal to cleaner-burning natural gas.

Chapter 12 The Cultural Geography of Europe

Chapter 12 The Cultural Geography of Europe - Study Guide for Apollo Team

Chapter 12 The Cultural Geography of Europe
Study Guide for Apollo Team
Chapter 12, Section 1
Terms to Know
ethnic group - People with a shared ancestry, language, customs, and often religion (page 288)
ethnic cleansing - The expelling of an ethnic group from a particular area (page 288)
refugee - Person who flees to a foreign country for safety (page 288)
urbanization - The concentration of populations in towns and cities (page 290)
Introduction (page 287) Europe is made up of more than 30 countries. The people in these countries belong to many different ethnic groups, and they speak many different languages. This diversity is due to migration, cultural diffusion, conflict, and changing borders.
1.  What is the cause of diversity in European countries?
Ethnic Diversity (page 287) Most Europeans are descended from Indo-European and Mediterranean
peoples who settled in Europe centuries ago. Today Europe’s population includes more recent immigrants from Asia, Africa, and the Caribbean. Many of these recent immigrants came from countries once ruled by Europeans.
Europe has more than 160 ethnic groups, or people who share an ancestry, a language, customs and, often a religion. Some countries have one major ethnic group. Others have two or more. In many cases these ethnic groups manage to keep their differences from causing conflicts. In other cases, tensions have caused violent conflicts. For example, when Yugoslavia broke up into separate republics in the early 1990s, several different ethnic groups began fighting. Serbian leaders followed a policy of ethnic cleansing. They expelled rival ethnic groups from Serb-controlled areas of Bosnia-Herzegovina and the province of Kosovo. Many people became refugees, or people who escape to a foreign country for safety.
In recent years Europeans have been working toward unity. They generally share common values, such as the importance of family and a commitment to democracy and a free market. Europeans also believe that government should provide people with social welfare and should regulate economies. These similarities help to make people in Europe think of themselves as Europeans as well as members of national or ethnic groups.
2.  Why are people who live in Europe able to think of themselves as Europeans?
Population Characteristics (page 289) Europe is the world’s second smallest continent in land area. However,
with a population of about 583 million, it is the third most populated continent. Europe’s population density is greater than all other continents except Asia. Europe’s urban centers are among the world’s most densely populated areas.
Like other parts of the world, Europe’s population is not evenly distributed. The population distribution is related to its physical geography. Mountainous areas are less populated than plains areas. Those areas of Europe that have higher than average population densities share the following features:
A.  They have favorable climates. B.  They are made up of plains. C.  They have fertile soil. D.  They have mineral resources. E.  They have inland waterways.
3.  What factor determines how Europe’s population is distributed?
Urbanization (page 289) The Industrial Revolution changed Europe from a rural to an urban society. Starting in the late 1700s, many rural farmers moved to cities to work in factories. This concentration of populations in cities is known as urbanization. More than three-fourths of Europe’s people live in cities. Like other world cities, European cities face the problems of overcrowding and pollution. However, these cities also combine old and new ways of life, with historical landmarks located next to new restaurants and shopping malls.
Migration has been a constant part of European life. In the late 1800s and early 1900s, many Europeans moved to the Americas, Africa, and the South Pacific. In recent years few Europeans have moved permanently, but many foreigners have migrated to Europe. Many came for jobs that became available when Western Europe’s economic boom resulted in labor shortages. By the time the economy slowed down, many of these foreigners had moved their families to their new country. Tensions increased between the immigrants and local residents as they competed for jobs. European governments have tried to limit further immigration while protecting the rights of the immigrants. Europe’s overall population is decreasing. This is largely due to the low birthrates in several European countries and a larger aging population.
Chapter 12, Section 2
Terms to Know
city-states-  Separate, independent communities (page 295)
Middle Ages - The period between ancient and modern times (page 296)
feudalism-  A system in which lords gave land to other nobles in return for pledges of loyalty (page 296)
Crusades - A series of religious wars over control of Palestine (page 296)
Renaissance - A 300-year period of discovery, learning, and creative activity (page 296)
Reformation - A religious movement that lessened the power of the Roman Catholic Church (page 297) Enlightenment - A movement that emphasized the importance of reason and questioning traditions (page 297)
industrial capitalism An economic system in which profits are used to expand companies (page 297)
communism - A philosophy that called for a society in which workers would control industrial production (page 298)
reparations Payment for damages (page 298) Holocaust The mass killing of more than 6
million European Jews (page 298)
Cold War - A power struggle between the communist world and the noncommunist world (page 298)
European Union - An organization whose goal was a united Europe in which goods, services, and workers could move freely among member countries (page 300)
1.  How did European culture spread to other parts of the world?
The Rise of Europe (page 294) Europe’s physical geography has helped shape its history. Much of Europe
borders large bodies of water, allowing Europeans to move between regions. Mountain passes allow contacts between inland groups. Rivers and fertile land have encouraged settlement and led to conflicts.
Early humans lived in Europe more than a million years ago. Prehistoric Europeans moved from place to place. Then about 6000 B.C. they began to settle in villages to farm. Some of the villages grew into cities.
The civilizations of Greece and Rome influenced the development of government, arts, and sciences of the Western world. The mountainous Balkan landscape led the Greeks to form independent communities called city-states along the Mediterranean coast. Greek civilization reached its peak during the 400s to 300s B.C. The Roman Empire also developed along the Mediterranean coast. At its height of power between 27 B.C. and A.D. 180, the empire covered half of Europe, northern Africa and western Asia.
In the late 300s, Christianity became the official religion of the Roman Empire. Also in the late 300s, the empire split in two. The eastern empire became known as Byzantium, and eastern Christianity developed into Eastern Orthodoxy. Western Christianity developed into Roman Catholicism.
After the fall of the Roman Empire in the late A.D. 300s, Western Europe entered a period called the Middle Ages, the time between ancient and modern times. From about 500 to 1500, feudalism—a system in which monarchs or lords gave land to nobles in return for pledges of loyalty—took the place of centralized government.
2.  Which ancient civilizations laid the foundation of Western Civilization?
Expansion of Europe (page 296) In the 1000s, western European armies fought in the Crusades. These were a series of religious wars to free Palestine, the birthplace of Christianity, from Muslim rule. Although Europeans failed to gain control of the area, they extended their trade to the eastern Mediterranean. The increased trade sparked a European interest in other parts of the world. Starting in the 1300s, the Renaissance—a 300-year period of learning and discovery—brought about a renewed interest in the cultures of ancient Greece and Rome.
It was also a time of scientific advances. A religious movement known as the Reformation led to the beginnings of Protestantism.  In the 1400s and 1500s, Spain, Portugal, England, France, and the Netherlands sent out expeditions of explorers. Their search for new trade routes to Asia resulted in the conquest of other lands and brought great wealth and power to Western Europe.
A Changing Europe (page 297) During the 1600s and 1700s, a movement known as the Enlightenment led educated Europeans to begin to question long-standing traditions and values. Desire for a voice in government led to political revolutions that challenged the power of monarchs. By 1900 most European countries had constitutions that limited rulers’ powers and gave some political rights to citizens.
During the same time the Industrial Revolution began in England and spread to other countries. Power-driven machinery transformed everyday life. These changes led to industrial capitalism, an economic system in which business leaders used profits to expand their companies. New social groups emerged: a middle class made up of merchants and factory owners, and a working class made up of factory workers. The middleclass grew wealthy. The working class, however, were poorly paid and lived in unhealthy conditions. These problems led to the birth of communism in the mid-1800s. This was a philosophy that called for a society based on economic equality. In this society, workers would control factories and industrial production. In 1917 the Russian revolution established a communist state called the Soviet Union.
In 1914, competition among European countries for colonies and economic power led to World War I. The Versailles peace treaty, which ended the war, required Germany to make payments to other countries for damages, or reparations.
After World War I, Italy’s leader, Benito Mussolini, and Germany’s leader, Adolf Hitler, began an aggressive territorial expansion. This aggression led to the start of World War II in 1939. The major horror of this war was the Holocaust, the mass killing of more than 6 million European Jews by Germany’s Nazi leaders.
When the war ended in 1945, most of Eastern Europe came under the control of the Soviet Union. Most of Western Europe received economic and military support from the United States. This division led to the Cold War—a power struggle between communist and noncommunist countries.
Over the next 40 years, the economies and standard of living of eastern European countries lagged behind those of western Europe. By 1989, communist governments there collapsed. In the 1990s, eastern European countries held free elections, formed new governments, and started market economies. By the 1990s, many western European nations formed the European Union (EU), an organization that called for a united Europe in which goods, services and workers could move freely among member countries.
Chapter 12, Section 3
Terms to Know
dialect-  Local forms of languages (page 302)
language family - A group of related languages that developed from an earlier language (page 303)
Good Friday Peace Agreement-  An agreement that allowed Protestant and Roman Catholic communities to share political power in Northern Ireland (page 304)
romanticism - Style of art that focused on the emotions, stirring historical events, and the exotic (page 305)
realism - Style of art that focused on the accurate depiction of everyday life (page 305)
impressionists A group of French painters who tried to capture immediate impressions of the natural world (page 305)
welfare state – A country that offers complete education, health care, and pension programs to their citizens (page 306)
Introduction (page 301) People in European countries have developed distinct ways of life. The physical environment in each country has helped to determine these ways of life. Although Europe is becoming more united politically and economically, each country still wants to keep its separate identity.
1.  What has helped to determine the way of life each European country has?
Expressions of Culture (page 301) Europeans, like people in other regions, express their values through the following ways:
A.  Language- There are about 50 different languages and more than 100 dialects, or local forms of languages, in Europe.  Almost all of Europe’s languages belong to the Indo-European language family, a group of related languages that started from an earlier language. Some of the major branches of the Indo-European language family are Slavic languages, such as Polish or Bulgarian; Germanic languages such as English or German; and Romance languages, such as French or Spanish.
B.  Religion Many European countries have a Christian heritage. Most Christians in Europe are Roman Catholics. Other Europeans are Eastern Orthodox, Protestants, Muslims, and Jews.  Although religion has united many Europeans, it has divided others. For example, conflicts between Catholics and Protestants in Northern Ireland have raged for years. Roman Catholics there wanted to become part of the largely Catholic Ireland. Protestants wanted to keep ties with the mostly Protestant United Kingdom.  The Good Friday Peace Agreement, signed in 1998, allowed Protestant and Roman Catholic communities to share political power.
C.  The Arts The art of Europe has influenced cultures around the world. Europe’s temples and churches show the link between religion and architecture. During the 1500s and 1600s, European artists and writers began to deal with everyday subjects. New music forms, such as the opera and the symphony, started in the 1600s and 1700s. In the 1800s, European artists produced works that reflected the style of romanticism. This style focused on nature and the emotions. During the mid-1800s realism became the leading artistic style. Realism is a style that accurately depicts everyday life. In the late 1800s, a group of French painters called impressionists moved outdoors from their studios to capture immediate “impressions” of the natural world. During the 1900s, abstract painting and sculpture became popular. Abstract art expresses form and color rather than content.
What did impressionists attempt to do in their paintings?
Quality of Life (page 305) Most western Europeans enjoy a higher economic standard of living than southern and eastern Europeans. The differences are partly due to the fact that many eastern European countries are still dealing with problems they had during communist rule. Some of these countries have also experienced warfare and unrest. The difference in the standard of living among various European countries has become a barrier to European unity.
Education is an important value for Europeans. Europeans are among the best-educated people in the world. Most European countries have literacy rates above 90 percent.
Some European countries provide their citizens with complete social welfare programs. These countries are called welfare states. They have tax-supported programs for higher education, health care, and social security. Paying for social programs is expensive for the European governments. In recent years, governments had to tighten their budgets and cut back on some of the social programs.
3.  Why do people in Western Europe generally enjoy a higher standard of living than people in eastern Europe?
Lifestyles (page 306) Cultural and economic differences within Europe have produced a variety of lifestyles. In recent years, technological advances have lessened the differences. Today, as in the past, the family is the center of life in most European cultures. Although family members are more mobile than ever before, they still attempt to keep close family ties.
The main sport in Europe is soccer. Other popular sports include rugby and tennis. In the Alpine regions, downhill skiing is popular, while cross-country skiing is popular in the Scandinavian countries.

Europeans celebrate some of the same holidays that people in other regions do. However, they celebrate them with their own unique traditions. Many holidays are linked to religious celebrations. Some European holidays, however, celebrate patriotic events.